Also see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_thinking
Thinking is a matter of conviction as well as of processes. Certain critical attitudes are necessary.
1. Intellectual curiosity: Disposition to be alert and sensitive to problems, their causes, related evidences, possible explanations, to wonder why, or how, or what.
2. Intellectual honesty, acceptance of responsibility for process and result: Disposition to accept apparent truth in spite of all inducements to the contrary; to follow evidence and judgment wherever they may lead; to stand up for one’s reasoned conclusions together with willingness to change conclusions and beliefs if further inquiry so warrants; to engage in self-criticism; to improve one’s own methods.
3. Objectivity: Disposition to select objective data; not to rely on hunches, intuition, and subjective observation; to be free from bias or partisanship.
4. Intelligent skepticism or suspension of judgment: criticalness. Disposition to delay acceptance of conclusion until all available relevant data have been considered; to accept nothing at face value.
5. Open-mindedness: Disposition to consider without bias or prejudgment a wide variety of facts, descriptions, explanations, and interpretations.
6. Conviction of universal cause-and-effect relationships: Steadfastness in avoiding superstitions, nonscientific, mystic explanations.
7. Disposition to be systematic: To adhere strictly to the problem and to a consequence of ideas; to use outlines, graphs, summaries to insist on systematic search and check; to be intolerant of confusion and inconsistency.
8. Flexibility: disposition to give up a previous conclusion, no matter how attractive, if sufficient contrary evidence is disclosed, to change method.
9. Persistence: disposition to persist in the search for evidence and adequate explanation, never giving up.
10. Decisiveness: disposition to come to a conclusion; to avoid snap judgments; to avoid balancing and weighing data and conclusions out of all reason.
Plainly, critical thinking is not limited to reading between the lines, nor never believing everything you read. Moral conviction is regarded as having the disposition to set aside any biased (preferential) or partisan (loyalty) thinking based wholly or in part on superstitions, nonscientific or mystic explanations in favor of intellectual objectivity, open-mindedness, and universal convictions. Decisions drawn from faith, subjective viewpoint, or intuition are irrational and do not contribute to good thinking. Critical thinking skills are the modernists’ moral attitudes.
Critical Thinking Process and Skills
- Separating or breaking a whole into parts to discover their nature, functional and relationships.
- “I studied it piece by piece”
- “I sorted things out”
|2. Applying Standards
- Judging according to established personal, professional, or social rules or criteria.
- “I judged it according to…”
- Recognizing differences and similarities among things or situations and distinguishing carefully as to category or rank.
- “I rank ordered the various…”
- “I grouped things together”
|4. Information Seeking
- Searching for evidence, facts, or knowledge by identifying relevant sources and gathering objective, subjective, historical, and current data from those sources
- “I knew I needed to lookup/study…”
- “I kept searching for data.”
- Who would be good person to consult?
|5. Logical Reasoning
- Drawing inferences or conclusions that are supported in or justified by evidence
- “I deduced from the information that…”
- “My rationale for the conclusion was…”
- Envisioning a plan and its consequences
- “I envisioned the outcome would be…”
- “I was prepared for…”
|7. Transforming Knowledge
- Changing or converting the condition, nature, form, or function of concepts among contexts
- “I improved on the basics by…”
- “I wondered if that would fit the situation of …”
What is the structure of an argument?
What are the premises?
Are any of them missing?
What is the conclusion?
Is it a deductive or inductive argument?
If deductive is it valid or invalid? If inductive is it strong or weak?
taken from John Kellogg on FB
Prejudices are rarely overcome by argument; not being founded in reason they cannot be destroyed by logic. – Tyron Edwards
If you want to build a ship, don’t drum up people to collect wood and don’t assign them tasks and work, but rather teach them to long for the endless immensity of the sea. -Antoine de Saint-Exupery