Thinking is a matter of conviction as well as of processes. Certain critical attitudes are necessary.
1. Intellectual curiosity: Disposition to be alert and sensitive to problems, their causes, related evidences, possible explanations, to wonder why, or how, or what.
2. Intellectual honesty, acceptance of responsibility for process and result: Disposition to accept apparent truth in spite of all inducements to the contrary; to follow evidence and judgment wherever they may lead; to stand up for one’s reasoned conclusions together with willingness to change conclusions and beliefs if further inquiry so warrants; to engage in self-criticism; to improve one’s own methods.
3. Objectivity: Disposition to select objective data; not to rely on hunches, intuition, and subjective observation; to be free from bias or partisanship.
4. Intelligent skepticism or suspension of judgment: criticalness. Disposition to delay acceptance of conclusion until all available relevant data have been considered; to accept nothing at face value.
5. Open-mindedness: Disposition to consider without bias or prejudgment a wide variety of facts, descriptions, explanations, and interpretations.
6. Conviction of universal cause-and-effect relationships: Steadfastness in avoiding superstitions, nonscientific, mystic explanations.
7. Disposition to be systematic: To adhere strictly to the problem and to a consequence of ideas; to use outlines, graphs, summaries to insist on systematic search and check; to be intolerant of confusion and inconsistency.
8. Flexibility: disposition to give up a previous conclusion, no matter how attractive, if sufficient contrary evidence is disclosed, to change method.
9. Persistence: disposition to persist in the search for evidence and adequate explanation, never giving up.
10. Decisiveness: disposition to come to a conclusion; to avoid snap judgments; to avoid balancing and weighing data and conclusions out of all reason.
Plainly, critical thinking is not limited to reading between the lines, nor never believing everything you read. Moral conviction is regarded as having the disposition to set aside any biased (preferential) or partisan (loyalty) thinking based wholly or in part on superstitions, nonscientific or mystic explanations in favor of intellectual objectivity, open-mindedness, and universal convictions. Decisions drawn from faith, subjective viewpoint, or intuition are irrational and do not contribute to good thinking. Critical thinking skills are the modernists’ moral attitudes.
Critical Thinking Process and Skills
|2. Applying Standards||
|4. Information Seeking||
|5. Logical Reasoning||
|7. Transforming Knowledge||
What is the structure of an argument?
What are the premises?
Are any of them missing?
What is the conclusion?
Is it a deductive or inductive argument?
If deductive is it valid or invalid? If inductive is it strong or weak?
taken from John Kellogg on FB